Cat

Inside the fence: conservation on private land with Australian Wildlife Conservancy

As I make my way down to one of Melbourne’s many trendy cafes to meet Zac Lewis, a Development Executive at Australian Wildlife Conservancy, one thing strikes me more than anything else – this is not the typical stomping ground of an employee of Australia’s largest private conservation land holder.

The modus operandi of AWC is one of on-ground action, and it’s clearly working for them. The not-for-profit conservation group manages 3.15 million hectares of land in Australia and are nearly solely responsible for the continued persistence of a number of threatened species that call our Outback home.  

A mulgara (Photo by J. Schofield, used with permission from Australian Wildlife Conservancy)

A mulgara (Photo by J. Schofield, used with permission from Australian Wildlife Conservancy)

As we chat, Zac’s passion for private land conservation quickly becomes clear: “I come from a marine ecology background, so a lot of the work at AWC was very new to me, particularly the idea of private conservation. It really does have a place though, I think, as the AWC estate protects 86% of Australia’s terrestrial bird species and over 70% of our native [terrestrial] mammal species.” As Zac points out, despite the incredible network of national parks across Australia, places like AWC’s sanctuaries are the last stronghold for a number of threatened species. Zac elaborates: “So that’s really why AWC was formed , to try and drive a new model for conservation, one that’s focused on effective conservation.”

Part of that effective conservation is ensuring as many dollars as possible that AWC spends are contributing directly to on-ground conservation. In order to achieve this, AWC’s sanctuary managers are accountable for every dollar they spend, with every action rooted in driving an ecological return. As Zac describes, “science is a critical part of that accountability. Really, we want to measure what we do, to see if it’s working and if it’s not working how we can adapt so it does.” Obvious things, really, but difficult on a shoestring budget.  

Despite the absolutely pivotal role AWC play in protecting and restoring Australia’s biodiversity, they have some challenges of their own.

I talk to a lot of people and, despite us being the largest private landowner for conservation in Australia, some people have never heard of us.

Part of this is a factor of the Conservancy’s business model. As Zac explains; “we spend 85% of our funding in the field and… [comparably] very little on marketing.” As a result, word-of-mouth is their major tool for garnering support and awareness for their work across the country. This can be challenging for AWC, given the vast majority of their fundraising is spent on direct conservation action.

Like many other charities, AWC are exploring more innovative sources of fundraising, which is proving to be successful. One particularly successful event, says Zac, was an attempt to bring science and art together called ‘Five artists, Seven days’: “[We sent] five prominent Australian artists up to our Pungalina-Seven Emu Wildlife Sanctuary in the Gulf of Carpentaria. They were there seven days for some inspiration and did a lot of painting and sculpting. We held an exhibition in Sydney in collaboration with the artists and their galleries and a proportion of the proceeds was donated to AWC.”

The Mala (Photo taken by W. Lawler, used with permission from Australian Wildlife Conservancy)

The Mala (Photo taken by W. Lawler, used with permission from Australian Wildlife Conservancy)

Zac reiterates throughout our conversation that AWC prides itself on measuring everything it does. It’s their point of difference and, according to Zac, part of what makes them so successful. “We’re in a resource-limited industry,” Zac explains, so they need to keep focused on ensuring their money is being used to deliver outcomes. That is, being able to show people that their support is making a difference. Zac reiterates that “the onus really is on us to be able to show what’s being achieved and demonstrate we are making a tangible, measurable difference to our endangered wildlife. For example AWC conducts annual biodiversity surveys across our sanctuaries to monitor the populations of many endangered species and ensure the graphs are heading in the right direction”.

Part of showing the work achieved by AWC, Zac says, is framing conservation challenges and progress in an effective manner: “People talk about conservation as, kind of, this problem that’s bigger than Ben Hur. For AWC, we focus our work on the key threats that are driving the extinction of many endangered native animals in Australia. Feral cats, for example, kill tens of millions of native animals per day across Australia. Our work focuses on integrating the management of these threats to our native wildlife like feral cats, wildfire and invasive weeds so that we can have the greatest impact.” Otherwise, according to Zac, you’re taking a scattergun approach to management.

Towards the end of our lunch, the conversation steers toward the future direction of AWC. Zac’s eyes light up noticeably as he excitedly describes some of the organization’s next steps, including the expansion of an existing sanctuary and an exciting partnership with the NSW Government. 

A numbat from Yookamurra Sanctuary (Photo by W. Lawler, used with permission from Australian Wildlife Conservancy)

A numbat from Yookamurra Sanctuary
(Photo by W. Lawler, used with permission from Australian Wildlife Conservancy)

Some may be disappointed to hear that Victoria doesn’t feature in AWC’s plans in the near future, but it’s for very good reason: “I think a lot of [donors and supporters] want to see a presence in Victoria. But it’s very hard. There’s two reasons why we’re not here [in Victoria]; the first is that land’s very expensive. We want to make landscape-scale changes and we can buy vast tracks of land in northern Australia for the price of a small property in Victoria. So that sense of scale [is important]. But also, we choose the land we acquire very carefully based on its biodiversity values so that we can get the best ecological return from our investment. A lot of the key conservation areas in Victoria are found on public land and are not up for sale.”

In those situations, partnerships with governments, like NSW, can be more effective. AWC have formed an historic partnership with the NSW Government to deliver land management and science in two NSW National Parks; the Mallee Cliffs National Park and Pilliga National Park. Despite the finer details still being settled on, AWC is planning to establish large feral predator-free areas in each park and reintroduce 10 of Australia’s most endangered native mammal species back in to these parks.

For the first time, regionally extinct animals that have not been seen for over 100 years will be returned to NSW National Parks.

The new arrangement between the NSW government and AWC is incredibly exciting. However, Zac thinks AWC’s other major focus for the short-term is just as impressive: “The big project for us over the next three years is the Newhaven project… It’s sort of a game-changing project”

AWC’s plans are simple – put in an enormous fenced exclosure at their Newhaven Wildlife Sanctuary, located in Central Australia. This might sound simple, given AWC’s previous success with feral predator-free areas but, in reality, it’s a mammoth task: “At the moment, our largest feral predator-free area on the mainland is Scotia at 8000 Ha. We want to put in a 65, 000 Ha feral cat-free area at Newhaven, which is really exciting.”

Newhaven Wildlife Sanctuary, which was previously owned by Birdlife Australia, is an area of global biodiversity significance. “Many species that originally occurred there have been lost; much of central Australia is a marsupial ghost town” says Zac. So once the fence is up and the foxes, cats and rabbits are removed, the next step is perhaps the most exciting: “We’re restoring nine endangered native mammal species to their homeland in central Australia at Newhaven, including the Greater Bilby, the Golden Bandicoot and the beautiful Mala, of which the mainland sub-species is extinct in the wild on mainland Australia.”

Apart from the prospect of reintroducing a number of locally extinct species, the Newhaven expansion is remarkable for other reasons, too. “It’s really taking the model we use now around feral cat eradication to a scale never before seen” Zac explains. Upon completion, Newhaven will be the largest feral predator-free area on mainland Australia. But, as Zac points out, this obviously doesn’t come cheap. “The first stage of the project will be to establish an 8-15,000 Ha fenced feral-free area, which will cost $3 million to put in place. The federal government has recognized the global significance of this project and have already committed $750, 000 to that first stage, so it is up to us now to raise the remaining funds.”

Zac acknowledges the enormity of the task ahead, but is optimistic given AWC’s success in Australia so far in conserving our flora and fauna.

We know we can do it, we just need to get the word out.

Cover image taken by W. Lawler at Newhaven Sanctuary, used with permission from Australian Wildlife Conservancy


149527_BILLYGEARY_BIGDESERT_5D2-9588.jpg

Billy Geary
Billy is the Science & Conservation Editor at Wild Melbourne. He is a wildlife ecologist interested in predator-prey interactions and invasive species management.

You can find him on Twitter at: @billy_geary

 

Urban Wildlife and Responsible Cat Ownership

If I were a feral cat, I would steadily be getting more and more concerned about my wellbeing. In order to halt the decimation of our native wildlife, the Federal Government has recently released the Threatened Species Strategy. Part of this strategy is a pledge to humanely remove two million free-living feral cats from wild areas across the nation.

For many, this is a long-awaited development in our fight against extinction. Cats were introduced to Australia with the arrival of European settlement. Since their introduction, Australia has lost 29 native mammal species, with feral cats implicated as one of the main causes for the extinction of 20 of them. Furthermore, the Action Plan for Australian Mammals, released in June 2014, concluded that 55 species of native wildlife are threatened and require urgent conservation action.

If you’re a cat owner like me, you may be thinking: “So what? My cat isn’t feral, she hardly EVER brings anything home, and she is far too lovely to be categorised as a ferocious predator!” But you would be wrong (I’m sorry, I know it hurts to hear it).

Domestic cats ( Felis catus ) are a major threat to Australian mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Photo: Billy Geary

Domestic cats (Felis catus) are a major threat to Australian mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Photo: Billy Geary

While research on the impact of domestic cats on native wildlife is scarce compared to that of feral cats, it suggests that domestic and stray cats do negatively impact many of our native species. For example, domestic cats have been implicated in the decline of the Superb Lyrebird in Sherbrooke Forest, and in the decline of the Eastern Barred Bandicoot in south-western Victoria. In the case of the bandicoot, cats were responsible for at least 42 percent of deaths in juveniles. Other studies have found that 50 to 80 percent of cats partake in hunting activities, but that the cats only brought between one third and one half of their prey items home.

I’ll admit it, I don’t like to think of my moggy as a parrot-eating, spinebill-chasing huntress, but our urban wildlife is too important to ignore this problem any longer.

In recent years, many councils have moved to reduce the impact of pet cats on native wildlife in their municipalities by imposing cat curfews. In the City of Wyndham in Melbourne’s north-west, cats must remain on their owner’s properties between the hours of 10pm and 6am, and between 8pm and 6am in the City of Whitehorse in Melbourne's east. The Yarra Ranges Council has gone a step further, requiring that cats must stay on their owner’s property at all times.

It's hard to believe that my little fluff-ball is contributing to the loss of our urban wildlife, but it is something that I must accept responsibility for. Photo: Emma Walsh 

It's hard to believe that my little fluff-ball is contributing to the loss of our urban wildlife, but it is something that I must accept responsibility for. Photo: Emma Walsh 

So what can you do to limit your feline friend’s impact on our native birds, mammals, reptiles and frogs? For starters, you can have your moggy desexed. This won't stop your cat from hunting, but it will eliminate any chance of it contributing to the proliferation of feral and stray cat populations. This will also help to reduce the number of dumped and unwanted cats that overrun animal shelters every year. If you are looking for a more direct approach, there are things like brightly coloured cat bibs which bring the cat to the prey’s attention, or other apron-like collar attachments which interfere with paw-eye coordination to reduce the wearer’s chance of a successful pounce. Finally, you can keep your cat indoors as much as possible. This is the most effective way of protecting our fauna, and also limits your cat’s chances of being injured in a road accident or catfight.

It’s difficult to acknowledge that your furry friend may be feasting on native animals behind your back, but acceptance is the first step to solving the problem. By making a few calculated commitments towards limiting your felines take-away habits, you can help to halt the decline of our urban wildlife. 

Predators, Films and Science: A Conversation with Dan Hunter

Nearly every ecologist across the world has, at one stage or another, had a moment in the field where they had the thought – “I wish I’d filmed that!” Or perhaps had David Attenborough’s voice going through their head whilst observing a once-in-a-lifetime encounter.

For University of New South Wales ecologist and film-maker Daniel Hunter, science and film go hand in hand. He explains: “The interesting thing about science journal papers is that they’re basically a good film script in disguise. They have an introduction (or a hook), a body and a conclusion (or ending).” As Dan reiterates, the marriage of the two disciplines is perhaps even more true for ecologists: “We often work in places that people dream about as holiday destinations, carrying out fieldwork with beautiful critters and plants at the most spectacular times of the day. Why not take a camera and record some of this, record the sounds, record the animals, capture the scenes, the moments and share them?”

Ecologist and natural history filmmaker Dan Hunter. Photo: Ed Sloane

Ecologist and natural history filmmaker Dan Hunter. Photo: Ed Sloane

With what Dan refers to as a “growing disconnect between scientists and the public,” starting his PhD was the perfect opportunity to go about rectifying the problem. According to Dan, it’s a serious problem. He expands: “The ‘public’ make policy decisions and are the ones affected by research outcomes so we, as scientists, have an obligation to ensure that our research is communicated clearly and effectively… using multiple communication methods.”

Dan’s research focuses on the importance of apex predators, such as the dingo, in structuring ecosystems through the reduction in numbers of herbivores and smaller predators. Whilst Dan’s findings mirror what is being observed elsewhere in Australia, they are no less important. In fact, Dan’s observations from his study area in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area were the catalyst for his new film. It turns out that “the mere presence of dingoes benefits small and medium mammal abundance and vegetation complexity so strongly that I just had to share these findings as far and wide as possible,” he says.

Naturally, given Dan’s background as a natural history filmmaker, a documentary was the best way to do this. “Essentially it is a film about the role of predators, the decline of Australia’s mammals and rewilding,” says Dan. “The story explores the role of dingoes in forests…. However, dingoes are persecuted because of the threat they pose to livestock and, as a consequence, our native mammal species are losing out in areas where dingoes have become functionally extinct.”

Dan Hunter says predators are vital for maintaining balance in ecosystems such as this. Photo: Dan Hunter

Dan Hunter says predators are vital for maintaining balance in ecosystems such as this. Photo: Dan Hunter

Given the film is based on his research, the story fell together quite neatly: “The process of piecing it all together was very organic because it is about my research which is something I know intimately well.” However, there were some challenges: “The tricky part for me, was making sure that it did not detract from the key message and was a sound piece of science communication. That meant not using too much jargon, keeping a good rhythm and using cinematography to maintain the attention of viewers.”

Throughout the filming process, Dan was continually reminded of the dire state of Australia’s mammals and the ineffectiveness of a business-as-usual approach to threatened species conservation. “Our current management (mainly, poison baiting with 1080) is short-sighted, unsustainable and costly,” says Dan. “We need to consider restoring dingoes to functional densities to tackle foxes and cats and where this is untenable for farmers we need to explore the option of bringing in devils as a surrogate at the very least.”

For many ecologists, reintroducing the Tasmanian Devil to mainland Australia (where it existed approximately 500 years ago) is not a new idea. “My supervisor and I discussed the idea of modelling Tasmanian Devil reintroduction to help mitigate some of the cat and fox carnage in forests,” he explains. “Although I don’t discuss the modelling in the film, I do go to Tasmania and interview some devil experts to get their thoughts on bringing devils back to the mainland.”

So, how can ecologists and other scientifically minded people convince policy makers to take a leap and return devils to the mainland? “Conduct quality research, disseminate the findings in a clear and effective way and begin the conversation,” says Dan. But unfortunately, it’s not quite as simple as that: “Farmers will want to know what the potential damage to their stock will be, conservationists will want to know if devils are going to do more bad then good, Tasmanians are going to want to be assured they will still have a tourism industry if they share their State emblem with Victoria and New South Wales. These are all legitimate concerns that scientists and others will need to address before any reintroduction takes place.”

However, Dan thinks we’re well on the way, explaining that “the first step is the hardest and I think we’re pretty close.”

Battle in the Bush premieres in Sydney in mid-June, with screenings in Melbourne and Geelong to follow soon after. Dan is on the lookout for venues to host screenings, so readers should get in touch if they can help. The film will also be available for purchase very soon.

All information related to Battle in the Bush can be found HERE and to read Wild Melbourne's review of the film, head HERE