endangered

Species of the Month: August

This August we are initiating our species-of-the-month campaign aimed at generating greater understanding of chosen species of Victorian flora and fauna. To honour the launch of this initiative we will be focusing this month's spotlight on two of our state emblems - the Helmeted Honeyeater (Epacris impressa) and the Common Heath (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix). 


Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix) & Friends for Life

Credit: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Helmeted-Honeyeater/1408866722662521

Credit: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Helmeted-Honeyeater/1408866722662521

With a bold outfit of gold, black and olive plumage, and a curious crown of feathers above its bill, the Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix) certainly packs visual appeal. It is, in fact, our official state bird emblem although not for its delicate beauty but rather more its endemic status (i.e. occurring only within the state of Victoria). Unfortunately, however, our avifaunal emblem is in troubled waters, with wild populations being precariously low and at a high risk of extinction. In the past, habitat loss and fragmentation due to land clearing for agriculture has played a large role in the specie’s decline. Fire and introduced predators further reduced populations to the point where an estimated 15 breeding pairs persisted in the wild in 1989. Today the Helmeted Honeyeater continues to struggle with eucalyptus die back, wildfire and completion with the larger, more aggressive Bell Miner (Manorina melanophrys) being noted as key threats to the species.  Nonetheless there is hope, as I recently discovered whilst speaking with James Frazer, coordinator of the Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater (FoHH) group, during this year’s ‘Convoy for Conservation’.

James heads a group of passionate volunteers who are working towards re-establishing the Helmeted Honeyeater, or Heho as it is affectionately known, within the Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve, approximately 50 kilometres east of Melbourne. The 9,600 hectare reserve is one of only two locations where the Helmeted Honeyeater can be found in the wild, the other being the Bunyip State Forest, and is where FoHH undertake their conservation efforts. A large portion of their work involves revegetating areas of the reserve with locally indigenous plant species propagated from their on-site nursery. In this way habitat suitable for the Helmeted Honeyeater is being created which will subsequently support a greater population of the birds once established in the future. Although, as James explains, the task it is not as simple as it may sound. Fallow, Sambar and Hog Deer also inhabit the reserve and pose a challenge to the group’s revegetation works. If planted in the standard practice, with a tree-guard and stakes, the plants will frequently be browsed upon or uprooted by the unruly deer. As a result James has had to find ways to outwit the troublesome deer and has successfully done so by importing special tree-guards from Britain—designed to protect plants from deer browsing—as well as fencing off revegetation patches.

As part of the Convoy for Conservation James had arranged for us to plant Mountain Swamp Gums (Eucalyptus camphora) around a small patch of swamp. As we were informed, this species provides highly favourable habitat for the Helmeted Honeyeater as the nectar of flowering Mountain Swamp Gum is a key element of the Helmeted Honeyeater’s diet. During the recent drought many of the Mountain Swamp Gum failed to flower due to increased water stress. Consequently the Helmeted Honeyeaters also fared poorly with few birds choosing to raise young in those years. It is therefore worrying to think of the effects that climate change could have on the species, particularly when its small range is taken into account. For James the solution lies in the creation of an ambitious 525,000 hectare wilderness area; the Great Forest National Park. If the proposal were to go ahead the specie’s, and many others, would stand a better chance of surviving the effects of changing climate as the Helmeted Honeyeater would be able to move freely along riparian stream vegetation to wetter areas more suitable for their needs.

Despite the hazy future of the Helmeted Honeyeater, when compared to the situation 25 years ago, the species is doing markedly better today. A concentrated captive breeding program by Healesville Sanctuary and Taronga Zoo has bolstered the wild Helmeted Honeyeater population, with many of the released captive birds going on to breed in the wild. During the 2013-14 breeding season a total of 36 young were fledged at the Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve. With hope this trend shall continue to a point where active management of the species is no longer required and the Helmeted Honeyeater is a common sight amongst the Mountain Swamp Gum of Yellingbo and beyond. 

The Helmeted Honeyeater needs friends for life. Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater are always in need of help to propagate and plant indigenous vegetation, conduct bird surveys, supplementary feed released birds and run education programs for schools and the wider community. If you would like to play a role in aiding in the conservation of this critically endangered species please contact the Friends of the Helmeted Honeyeater group: phone 5964 8341 or e-mail heho1@optusnet.com.au .

Author: Nathan Gregory


 Common "Pink" Heath (Epacris impressa)

Image Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epacris_impressa

Image Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epacris_impressa

 

Our floral emblem is a small, unassuming plant that you’ve likely seen if you’ve ever ventured out into one of Victoria’s forests, but probably don’t know much about. Its quiet lifestyle doesn’t compare to that of a carnivorous sundew or a giant mountain ash, but this common plant is well adapted to its environment and has earned my respect. And so it should! After all, it is our floral emblem.

Common Heath (Epacris impressa) is a prickly little shrub that belongs to the Ericaceae family, along with cranberries, blueberries, and various heaths and heathers. It is a slender, wiry shrub that grows to around 1.5 metres tall, and has rigid, sharp-ended leaves to help fend off grazing herbivores. Common Heath flowers from March through to November. During this period, it bursts into colour, boasting numerous white, pink or red tubular flowers. The pink variety of Common Heath was proclaimed Victoria’s floral emblem in 1958, and was the first emblem of its kind in Australia.

Common Heath’s generic name, Epacris, means ‘upon a hill’, referring to the relatively high altitude at which some species grow. Its specific name, impressa, is Latin for ‘impressed’ or ‘indented’, and refers to the five dimples at the base of this species’ flowers.

As for where you can find our floral emblem, you don’t have to look very hard. Found throughout Victoria, Common Heath grows in a huge variety of habitats including coastal and sandy heathland, scrubby woodlands and dry forests, and at altitudes of up to 1200 metres in montane and sub-alpine areas. Pink Common Heath is indigenous to most of Melbourne’s outer eastern suburbs. It was once common in Warrandyte and surroundings, as far into the city as Mount Waverley and Murrumbeena, throughout the Dandenong Ranges, and also throughout many of the bayside suburbs as far north as Brighton. Although it is no longer prevalent in these locales, Pink Common Heath can be found in many parks and reserves in these areas.

 
Range of the Common Heath. Image Credit:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epacris_impressa

Range of the Common Heath. Image Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epacris_impressa

 

From an ecological viewpoint, Pink Common Heath has a few mentionable characteristics. The flowers produce nectar at their bases, which attracts a variety of animals including birds and insects. Honeyeaters, such as the Eastern Spinebill (Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris) are able to dip their long beaks deep into the tubular flower in order to drink the nectar, and in turn help with pollination by picking up pollen from one plant and then depositing it onto the next flower it drinks from.

 
An Eastern Spinebill enjoying the nectar of the Common Heath. Image Credit:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epacris_impressa

An Eastern Spinebill enjoying the nectar of the Common Heath. Image Credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epacris_impressa

 

In addition to this close relationship with its pollinators, Pink Common Heath also has an even cosier relationship with certain fungi in the surrounding soil. The roots of Pink Common Heath are colonised through a mycorrhizal relationship - a symbiotic association between the plant and a fungus that has adapted to combat the challenges caused by the nutrient-poor and acidic soils that Pink Common Heath tend to grow in. The plant trades carbohydrates with the fungi in exchange for crucial nutrients that the fungus is able to yield from the soil. Different species of these symbiotic fungi are found in different areas.

Although Pink Common Heath is common in many areas, it is not immune to ecological threats. It is moderately susceptible to Cinnamon Fungus (Phytophthora cinnamomi). Once infected, the roots of the plant are unable to absorb water and nutrients. The roots blacken and die, the plant withers, and often the infection results in death. To help combat the spread of Cinnamon Fungus, clean your shoes, tyres and gear so that they are free from soil and gravel, so that you don’t take the fungus with you to the next place you visit.

 
 

Another threat to Pink Common Heath is the Large Earth Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). This invasive species is a nuisance to our floral emblem because it dines and dashes. Instead of sipping nectar via the throat of the plant, the Large Earth Bumblebee pierces the flower at its base and obtains it through this more direct route. This is detrimental to the plant because the bumblebee drinks the nectar without transferring pollen from one plant to another (which occurs when the nectar is obtained via the throat of the plant).

 In writing this article, I have a newfound respect for our floral emblem. It is not just a ‘pretty flower’, but plays an integral role in its ecosystem, and is well adapted to its environment. Pink Common Heath, as its name suggests, is ordinary and discrete at first glance, but this pearl of the forest is an icon with character, seamlessly woven into its environment, and hopefully will continue to be for years to come. 

Author: Emma Walsh

Wild heart of the Eastern Suburbs: The unique Seaford Wetlands

The Seaford Wetlands comprise of a number of vegetation communities. The tall, Common Reed ( Phragmites australis ) dominated marsh in the background provides potential habitat of the internationally endangered Australasian Bittern ( Botaurus poiciloptilus ).

The Seaford Wetlands comprise of a number of vegetation communities. The tall, Common Reed (Phragmites australis) dominated marsh in the background provides potential habitat of the internationally endangered Australasian Bittern (Botaurus poiciloptilus).

As a newcomer to Melbourne, I had set expectations on what wildlife I might observe inhabiting the urban jungle. I anticipated that the city would support little in the way of indigenous fauna and that any wild places would be long since lost. Having lived within the city for a few months now, these presumptions have been turned on their head; Melbourne certainly is home to many native critters, and plenty of significant wild places continue to exist within the city’s boundaries.

One such wild place I have had the pleasure of visiting recently is the Seaford Wetlands - a truly remarkable remnant of the past preserved in the heart of suburbia.

The wetlands are a mecca for birdwatchers, a diverse array of around 190 species having been recorded here. Migratory waders are particularly well represented, with 18 such species making use of the reserve. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper (Calidris acuminate) alight the mudflats in their thousands throughout the summer months where they forage for freshwater invertebrates and their larvae before departing for their Siberian breeding grounds during March. Indeed the Seaford Wetlands, along with the nearby Edithvale Wetlands, support more than 1% of the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper’s flyaway population. For this reason, the wetlands are recognised as  internationally significant and are therefore protected under the Ramsar convention *.

The reserve supports not only migratory species, but also a number of threatened species. The wetlands account for one of a few known potential-breeding sites of the endangered Australasian Bittern (Botaurus poiciloptilus). This secretive, nocturnal, heron-like bird inhabits the tall, dense, common reed and cumbungi-dominated marsh of the wetlands. As a result of this behaviour, along with the species’ incredibly cryptic plumage, it is unlikely that one would sight the bird whilst visiting. Nevertheless, it is exciting to know that such a rare species lurks within the reed beds.

The critically endangered Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) and endangered Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolour) are amongst 15 other threatened birds that have also been sighted visiting the wetlands.

Aside from these particularly notable species, a multitude of relatively common birds reside at the wetlands. Around the reserve’s outskirts, Noisy Miner, Little and Red Wattlebird, various Honeyeaters and Rainbow Lorikeet browse on flowering eucalypts and banksias whilst Silvereye and Superb Blue Wren forage amongst the shrubs beneath. Eurasian Coot and Purple Swamp Hen go about their business amongst the reed bed peripheries with Egret, White-faced Heron and White Ibis stalking along the water’s edge. On the open water, ducks are particularly prominent. Whilst visiting, Chestnut Teal, Grey Teal, Black Duck and Pink-eared Duck were all seen in good numbers along with a splattering of Hoary-headed Grebe. Above the wetlands, Welcome Swallow dip and dive over the water as Little Eagle patrol from far above on thermal columns. Perhaps the most exciting sighting of the day was observing Golden Headed Cisticolas bopping around in the tall marsh along the centre track. The nervous little birds were clearly not impressed by my presence and, with a series of scolding tweets, retreated further into the reeds.

A male Chestnut Teal ( Anas castanea ) relaxes perched on a log, its sleek plumage gleaming in the sunshine. A bird-watching platform at the southern end of the wetlands provide a good opportunity to observe many such birds.

A male Chestnut Teal (Anas castanea) relaxes perched on a log, its sleek plumage gleaming in the sunshine. A bird-watching platform at the southern end of the wetlands provide a good opportunity to observe many such birds.

A multitude of duck species occur at the Seaford Wetlands. The Pacific Black Duck ( Anas superciliosa ) are among the most common.

A multitude of duck species occur at the Seaford Wetlands. The Pacific Black Duck (Anas superciliosa) are among the most common.

A Golden-headed Cisticola ( Cisticola exilis ) retreats into the marsh upon being disturbed.

A Golden-headed Cisticola (Cisticola exilis) retreats into the marsh upon being disturbed.

Those with a keen interest in plants shall also be impressed. Eleven vegetation communities are represented within the wetlands, five of which are considered threatened at a state level. The diverse array of birds inhabiting the wetlands can be directly attributed to the quality and diversity of these communities. Similarly, the presence of frogs within these vegetation communities indicates that the wetlands are in a healthy state.

Flowering Coast Banksia ( Banksia integrifolia ) provide a much relished food source for the many resident Wattlebird, Honeyeater and Rainbow Lorikeet around the edge of the reserve.

Flowering Coast Banksia (Banksia integrifolia) provide a much relished food source for the many resident Wattlebird, Honeyeater and Rainbow Lorikeet around the edge of the reserve.

Due to the close proximity of Seaford to central Melbourne, it might well prove to be the perfect location for your next nature outing. Approximately an hour’s train journey from Flinders Street Station along the Frankston metro-line, the Seaford Wetlands can be easily accessed within ten minutes on foot via McKenzie Street to the east of the station.

What’s more is that Seaford is also home to two other major nature reserves: Kananook Creek Reserve and the Seaford Foreshore Reserve.  Both of these parks are also well worth a visit, particularly in order to see the impressive Coastal Banksia Woodlands which grow there. The latter also accounts for the largest barrier dune system in Port Phillip Bay. (This dune system ultimately created Carrum Carrum Swamp—which was drained in the late nineteenth century leaving the Seaford and Edithvale Wetlands as remnants—by blocking freshwater outflows to Port Phillip Bay, consequently leading to the inundation of around 4000 hectares of land.)

So there you have it - a wetland of universal importance supporting numerous endangered and migratory species within a metropolitan area. Certainly an interesting and inspiring example of how human and wild communities can coexist and thrive into the future.


* The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is an intergovernmental treaty which aims to conserve wetlands of particular importance by ensuring that they are managed sustainably.

Although only a small remnant of the past 52 square kilometre Carrum Carrum Swamp, the Seaford Wetland Reserve is still significantly large, covering approximately 158 hectares.    

Although only a small remnant of the past 52 square kilometre Carrum Carrum Swamp, the Seaford Wetland Reserve is still significantly large, covering approximately 158 hectares.

 



In Conversation with Professor David Lindenmayer: Part 3

Professor David Lindenmayer of the Australian National University is one of our country's foremost ecologists. An outspoken conservationist, David uses his decades of experience and years of scientific studies to support his argument for a Great Forest National Park, in our state of Victoria, a move supported by Wild Melbourne, and a host of other NGO's.  

With the recent release of the video advertising his proposal for the GFNP, now seems like the right time to revisit a conversation I had with him late last year. 

In this third and final part of the interview, David describes the nature and plight of our State Emblem, the Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri).

The Leadbeater's Possum ( Gymnobelideus leadbeateri ): Curtesy of zoo.org.au 

The Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri): Curtesy of zoo.org.au 

The leadbeaters possum is a small marsupial weighing about 140 grams. Small enough to fit in your hand, they stand out with their long club like tail. However, it is not for this tail that their name is derived - rather, they are named for the taxidermist from the Victorian museum who described them: John Leadbeater.

What’s interesting, David says, is that they “move like Grease-Lightening… they’re much quicker than squirrels… and they live in colonies… ruled by a single dominant female.”

While small marsupials tend to be colonial (often for protection from predators and to keep warm), the Leadbeaters are unique in having a matriarchal society.

David notes that “The colony needs a number of nest trees to survive, not just one big old tree.” 

While the number of individuals in a colony can vary with season, David says he has noted a decline in the overall size of colonies, from 8 to 12 individuals down to an average of two. He says that logging old growth trees is an issue, as a tree often needs to be over 150 years old before it will form the hollows that these possums require for nests. Furthermore, as young forests are more fire prone, these animals are subjected to an increasing frequency of fires.

He notes that there is a cycle whereby fires tend to occur in areas previously logged, but that we are also more likely to log areas effected by fire (a process called salvage logging), and so forests are being driven to a younger and younger age.

“It becomes quite a vicious cycle… we log the forest and the habitat quality is immediately reduced for up to 150 years…  when the forest burns animals die on site, but then we’re also likely to salvage log it.”

Because of this, David and his collaborators have written a strategy for the conservation of the species and its habitat.    

“One of the things that have to happen is that every single remaining big old tree has to be conserved. Another thing… is that areas that are more likely to be old growth need to be left alone in the landscape and allowed to grow.”

“Animals basically go through local extinction… in places like Lake Mountain where they've been lost… we have to conserve every possible place where the animal is left over.”

Of course, tree hollows are imperative to a lot of Australian fauna, and so David’s plan may help to conserve numerous native species, but given the dire situation of these possums, the emphasis is on them.

“One of the key issues really is that the Leadbeaters possum is emblematic of a series of problems… it is a symptom of poor management of a system... If we can’t manage Leadbeaters possum… we simply aren’t able to manage these forests… when we talk about recovering the Leadbeaters possum we’re really talking about recovering the whole forest.”

Because of this, David has proposed the concept of a new nature reserve encompassing the entire range of the Possum.

“I think it is absolutely critical that we have a new giant forest national park - Absolutely critical. That is non-negotiable.”

He further declares a need to remove logging from the system, and to get the community involved.

“This is a major park for Victorians and Australians, and they need to fight for this, for the sensible use of its resources… People [also] need to start using their own purchasing power to make a difference… if they buy recycled paper, if they don’t buy pure-white Reflex paper that will mean there is no market for that paper, which is Leadbeaters possum habitat.”

David explains that people have the power to demand that the best be made of these parks – which are public land, and he concludes that supporting these ecosystems also means supporting the communities in and around them.

“The infrastructure needs to be put into towns like Marysville, like Warburton, like Healesville…where we can see the tangible benefits.”

In a final summary of his work and his passion, Professor Lindenmayer leaves me with these words:

“I have a strong belief in the science… I am a Victorian; I was born in Victoria… I am passionate about the state and I want to see the state manage its resources in the best way possible.”

- Professor David Lindenmayer. 

In Conversation with Professor David Lindenmayer: Part 1

Professor David Lindenmayer of the Australian National University is one of our country's foremost ecologists. An outspoken conservationist, David uses his decades of experience and years of scientific studies to support his argument for a Great Forest National Park, in our state of Victoria, a move supported by Wild Melbourne, and a host of other NGO's.  

With the recent release of the video advertising his proposal for the GFNP, now seems like the right time to revisit a conversation I had with him late last year. 

In this first part of the interview, David discusses where he came from and what defines his science today.  
 

Professor Lindenmayer: courtesy of abc.net.au

Professor Lindenmayer: courtesy of abc.net.au


David spent the first years of his life in Melbourne’s eastern suburbs. When he was ten he moved to Canberra, and upon completing his schooling spent some time travelling overseas. Returning to Australia, he studied Marine Biology at James Cook University, however, he soon developed an interest for forests and began to volunteer with the CSIRO.

While doing a Master’s degree, his research focused on the Leadbeater’s Possum, and became so intensive that he had to convert his degree into a PhD. His work investigated the habitat and nesting requirements of the possum, but also looked at the animal’s associated ecosystem as a whole. It was from this initial work that David would cultivate a life-long passion for the Montane Ash forests of Victoria, and spawn a highly productive career in ecology.

“I really have a strong affinity for a lot of the animals in the system. I really enjoy catching the animals, watching the animals; I do a lot of bird-watching down there... but I also really enjoy all the discoveries and all the work as well.”

Yet, David’s work isn’t restricted to the Ash forests of our state. His team of nearly 40 people runs the largest terrestrial-research monitoring program in the world, working throughout various habitats across Victoria and interstate.   

“What defines us… is large-scale, long-term research associated with the management and conservation of these ecosystems and the species in these systems… in the central highlands we have an understanding of fire, logging, of germination, tree-development, animal habitats… we’re beginning to build a major body of work around how a system functions”

His team have published some 180 papers and 7 books on the Victorian Montane Ash ecosystem and some 500 papers and 35 books across all the systems they have worked on.

But why forests? 

“I’ve always enjoyed forest environments… [And] I guess it’s a lot to do with the grandeur of the system… [And] the apparent simplicity that belies the true complexity.” 

 

David explores his passion and hopes for these forests further in Part 2 of our interview.