national parks

Beauty Abound: The Hidden Wonders of Wilsons Promontory

Recently, a deep-water reef was discovered at Victoria’s largest and most biodiverse marine park, Wilsons Promontory.

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   View along Tidal River to the Oberon Bay hiking trail.  Image: Lauren Hall

View along Tidal River to the Oberon Bay hiking trail. Image: Lauren Hall

This article is a guest post by Lauren Hall. 

Wilsons Promontory Marine National Park is the largest marine park in Victoria, approximately 220 kilometres south-east of Melbourne. It surrounds the southernmost tip of mainland Australia and is home to an extremely diverse range of marine wildlife and habitat types. This marine park is particularly unique due to its seagrass beds, unusual granite coastline, white sandy beaches and deep reef habitats abundant with colourful sea sponge gardens, stalked ascidians, fan-shaped gorgonian corals and diverse fish species. The park’s near-vertical granite cliffs, bright orange boulders, remote setting and frequently clear waters offer incredible diving, swimming, snorkeling and bird watching opportunities for all to enjoy.

Compared to the rest of central Victoria’s marine parks, Wilsons Promontory has the highest biodiversity of fish species, with both cold temperate species from the south and warm water species from the north. This is due to the influence of the East Australian Current, which flows down the east coast of Australia from the Great Barrier Reef. Wilsons Promontory is therefore an exceptional place, as it marks the boundary between the warmer waters of the east Australian coast and the cold temperate waters of central and western Victoria. Many of the warmer fish species are brilliantly coloured, such as the red velvetfish, wrasse, eastern blue groper and magpie and butterfly perch. It is also a nationally significant area for the recovery of great white shark populations, as well as the hooded plover seabirds and the white-bellied sea eagles. The islands within the marine park are known to be important breeding grounds for little penguins, Australian fur seals and New Zealand fur seals. Other animals known to use the marine park include southern right whales, humpback whales, orcas, leatherback sea turtles, green sea turtles, bottlenose dolphins and even leopard seals from Antarctica.

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     Red velvetfish in Wilsons Promontory Marine Park.  Image: Mark Norman, Museum Victoria

Red velvetfish in Wilsons Promontory Marine Park. Image: Mark Norman, Museum Victoria

Wilsons Promontory Marine Park is more unique and diverse than ever imagined.

As 90% of the marine park reaches depths of more than 20 metres, the full extent of its reef habitat has not been discovered until recently. In 2015, scientists decided to explore the unknown depths of its waters, which they suspected might house undisturbed and unique ecosystems. What they did not expect was the enormity of what they would find: an undisturbed, deep-water coral reef so diverse and teeming with life that it rivals even the Great Barrier Reef.  

An underwater viewpoint courtesy of an ROV.   Image: Parks Victoria

An underwater viewpoint courtesy of an ROV. Image: Parks Victoria

Using Remote Operated Vehicles, or ROVs, scientists were able to explore these reefs at 30 to 100 metre depths, capturing footage of enormous colourful coral fans, sponge gardens and an abundance of fish species. The fish spotted in these reefs were as long as 80 cm and included rare species such as the Australian barracuda, indicating that these habitats are acting as a refuge for species struggling in more shallow Victorian waters. Also seen by the ROVs were sand dunes up to 30 metres high and two kilometres across, boulders as large as houses and 90-metre deep holes filled with schools of fish. Steffan Howe, Marine Science Manager from Parks Victoria, has said that the abundance of corals, sponges and fish species in these reefs are a particularly exciting find, especially as it is likely that there are never-before-seen species present.

Although these ecosystems are too deep to access and are currently unmapped, Parks Victoria is keen to encourage divers to explore the region within recreational limits (down to 40 metres) in specifically marked areas yet to be identified. Through the help of recreational divers’ photographs and personal accounts, further discoveries could be made. Due to its depth and inaccessibility, Parks Victoria feel that it should attract minimal tourists, keeping the ecosystem relatively safe from most disturbances. Marine park authorities are currently gathering as much information as possible before allowing divers access to minimise potential impacts and stresses to the new ecosystem.

Protecting this unique ecosystem

As 90% of the plants and animals in these southern Victorian waters are found nowhere else in the world, it is imperative that this area is kept in its natural state.

Marine pests are a major potential threat to an ecosystem such as this, so visitors should assist in the prevention of the spread of pests and diseases by washing all boating and swimming gear in fresh water before and after use within the park. Divers and boat operators should always be conscious of keeping a safe distance from all marine animals and plant life at all times.

Access to the islands where the breeding of seabirds, little penguins and seals occurs is prohibited except for beach areas of the Great Glennie and Rabbit Islands. During the breeding season of the Australian fur seal, boats and other motorised PWCs are encouraged to keep well away from the islands, as they have been known to disturb breeding seal colonies in the past. Between August and April, it is particularly important to keep an eye out for the hooded plover: an endangered seabird known to nest on exposed beaches in Wilsons Promontory and elsewhere in Victoria.

A hooded plover.  Image: Dean Ingwersen

A hooded plover. Image: Dean Ingwersen

If you are not a diver or boat operator, you can enjoy the beauty of Wilsons Promontory by visiting its many secluded beaches, some of which are bright white and sandy, others grey and pebbly. Colourful granite boulders ranging from grey to light brown to bright orange, reminiscent of the Bay of Fires in Tasmania, can be found dispersed along the coastline and dotted along the beaches. The moderately easy two and a half hour hiking trail from Tidal River to Oberon Bay is a great way to explore the unique coastal habitats and secluded beaches along the way. Some of the best snorkeling can be found at Little Oberon Bay alongside the granite boulders and floating kelp where fish are abundant. The beaches along this trail also provide birdwatchers with many opportunities to see flocks of crested terns, sooty oystercatchers, silver gulls, short-tailed shearwaters, and the pacific gulls which only breed in this area of Victoria.  

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   A flock of crested terns on the beach at Oberon Bay.  Image: Lauren Hall

A flock of crested terns on the beach at Oberon Bay. Image: Lauren Hall

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   Bright orange granite boulders, Little Oberon Bay.    Image: Lauren Hall

Bright orange granite boulders, Little Oberon Bay. Image: Lauren Hall

Efforts must be made to minimise disturbances to this marine park. Whilst participating in water activities, it is imperative that care is taken to reduce damage from anchors, fins and intertidal trampling. The removal of flora and fauna is illegal throughout the national park. Thus, all visitors should be aware of park regulations and take away any leftover rubbish. Additionally, maintaining a safe distance of at least two metres from wildlife is vital so that animals and their habitats are not affected.

The true joy of visiting places such as Wilsons Promontory is in seeing, exploring and taking away memories in the form of photography and experiences. Further exploration of this remarkable ecosystem is imperative in our quest to protect it. Our ability to communicate its wonders will play a vital role in conservation education so that future generations will continue to enjoy this spectacular marine and coastal wilderness.

Half the World for Nature

Nature needs half. This is a striking concept being advocated by scientists around the world who recognise that the area of the planet which is currently protected falls drastically short of meeting any real conservation objectives. Constrained by global politics, targets have been put forward with an eye to what can be spared, rather than what our ecosystems ultimately need to survive. The spreading idea that ‘nature needs half’ insists on a more ambitious outlook. In the words of the author and conservationist E.O. Wilson: ‘Half the world for humanity, half for the rest of life, to make a planet both self-sustaining and pleasant’.

The role of protected areas in conservation

According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), a protected area is ‘a clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values’. Protected areas cannot be used for industry, though their resources may be available on a small scale for local use. Harvey Locke explains this as ‘the difference between tapping sap from a maple or rubber tree and cutting trees down to feed a pulp mill’.

The captivating landscape of Mornington Sanctuary in the Kimberley: an immense nature reserve in north-west Western Australia.  Image: Alex Mullarky

The captivating landscape of Mornington Sanctuary in the Kimberley: an immense nature reserve in north-west Western Australia. Image: Alex Mullarky

These designated areas then remain largely free from the impact of human development, meaning that their ecosystems and biodiversity are preserved. The present era is becoming popularly known as the ‘Anthropocene’, in which humans are identified as a geological force that has changed the planet. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species indicates that today, 20% of Earth’s vertebrates are threatened with extinction. Protected areas give these species a tangible chance at survival away from human influence.

How much should be protected?

The Convention on Biological Diversity’s Target 11 commits to protect 17% of the world’s land and inland water and 10% of coastal and marine areas by 2020. Yet numerous scientists have compared the needs of different bioregions, and their research has demonstrated that in most areas, between 25% and 75% (or an average of 50%) needs to be protected if their biodiversity and ecological processes are to be kept intact.

However, protecting 50% of the planet will not necessarily lead to success. If the majority of inland Australia was placed under protection but no coastal areas were preserved, vital ecoregions would be overlooked. For this concept to work, at least 50% of each distinct ecoregion would need to be conserved. Not only that, but wildlife corridors would need to be maintained between these areas to allow for natural ranging and migration. No protected space would exist in isolation: connectivity plays an essential role in effective conservation.

Protected Australia

Globally, 14.6% of land is protected by government and non-government organisations, and only 2.8% of global marine areas. Australia improves on these averages, with 15% of terrestrial areas and 41% of its oceans protected.

It is hard to deny that protection is needed. More than a third of the world’s mammal extinctions in the last 500 years have occurred in Australia, where so many of our species – almost 90% – are endemic. Areas free of feral predators have been found to be particularly important in protecting native Australian species, which are preyed upon by the cats and foxes introduced by European colonists.

Arguably one of Victoria's most talked about national parks, Wilsons Promontory consists of 50, 500 hectares of pristine beaches and incredible rainforests.  Image: Andrew Coles

Arguably one of Victoria's most talked about national parks, Wilsons Promontory consists of 50, 500 hectares of pristine beaches and incredible rainforests. Image: Andrew Coles

More locally, Parks Victoria manages 4.11 million hectares of land and marine areas, or 18% of the state – and that’s only the areas protected by government, not accounting for NGOs and other groups managing land for conservation. Clearly there is an active interest in preserving our landscape and preventing further extinctions.

The Great Eastern Ranges Initiative aims ‘to protect, restore and reconnect important areas of habitat along the entire 3,600km length of the Great Eastern Ranges from western Victoria to far north Queensland’. This initiative, ongoing since 2007, is a clear demonstration of the Australian public’s commitment to ambitious schemes that don’t shy away from the reality of effective conservation.

Half a human world

‘Nature needs half’ is a necessary and important movement in our understanding of conservation. It is a recognition of our responsibility to ensure the survival of the species and ecosystems that we share our planet with. Considering the irreversible changes that have already taken place at human hands, it is ethically imperative - half is the very least we can do.

Banner image courtesy of Alex Mullarky


Alex Mullarky

Alex Mullarky is a freelance journalist and works part-time in threatened species conservation. Her other passion is ex-racehorse rehabilitation and she is currently completing her Masters.

You can find her on Twitter at @ajmullarky