Yes, it’s a story about rabbits - and Australia hates rabbits. What possible relevance could a book written in 1970s England, set in the British countryside, and explicating the plight of a few lost bunnies have to Australia’s present day environmental predicaments (to put habitat destruction, climate change and species endangerment extremely lightly)?
Well the answer is, more than you’d think. Considered one of the most famous environmental allegories in the history of English Literature, Richard Adams’ Watership Down may only have begun as a simple fantasy story told to his own children. However, it has since transformed into a symbol of pro-conservation and environmentalism, capturing the empathetic hearts and minds of readers through the story of a group of rabbits whose burrow is destroyed by humans.
The amazing potential of many fantasy and science fiction writers to seemingly ‘predict the future’, especially in terms of environmental effects and technological advancement, has become more and more evident in contemporary writing. It is now difficult for many writers to discuss global issues through fiction without humans’ destruction of nature and its species coming into play. Now at the forefront of so much scientific attention, it should be difficult for just about anyone, let alone writers, to ignore such issues.
The destruction of the rabbits’ home too clearly represents what occurs, and has occurred, in Australia and more locally Victoria for over 200 years. The devastation of so many natural habitats in Melbourne and surrounding areas means that, although not rabbits, Australia’s native animals are being forced to seek alternative habitats or otherwise survive in the ones that humans have altered.
All of this might seem blaringly obvious to some, but it is clear that more action needs to be taken to prevent further habitat destruction and species endangerment, or to relieve the damage that has already been done. Although millions of dollars have so far been spent to protect threatened species, federal government action has only resulted in one animal being removed from Australia’s threatened species list – the saltwater crocodile (a patch of clear blue in the midst of a dismally rainy day).
Many governmental and private sustainability organisations are indeed working towards protecting species and lessening the effects of habitat destruction, but it is clear that a broader input from the public is vital for action to be effective. Although on the odd occasion publicity regarding native animals and habitat devastation appears, the amount of times such stories actually surface does not correlate with the real significance of the problem. In other words, one story on a new native animal at the zoo does not correspond to the many hundreds of issues surrounding the plight of Victoria’s natural environments.
At this point in time, many adults are probably more likely to read or watch fictional stories, if just with their children, than will actively seek out scientific information on environmental issues. More people will better understand and even relate to the plight of animals whose homes have been destroyed if it is described in such a way that anthropomorphises them. Although perhaps a sad reality, many elements of literature provide effective ways of encouraging empathy towards animals other than humans. A recent study showed that reading literary fiction can actually enhance a person’s understanding of another’s mental state (Kidd & Castano 2013), suggesting that fiction is much more capable of influencing human social relationships than has been assumed. Perhaps it also has the power to increase our understanding of other elements of human life. It has been said that fiction can reveal the truth that reality obscures. I think environmentalist fiction can do this, if at least for those currently unable to see the truth in an already blatant reality.
Reading is definitely not for everyone though, and it is true that many non-environmentalists are probably not very likely to read literature that is known for its positive take on conservation. However, simply by writing and publicising such stories, authors and journalists may slowly be able to turn around at least a few inquisitive minds that previously found it difficult to empathise with native fauna.
As well as personifying the rabbits, Adams makes sure to emphasise the downfall of those few creatures that become too alike to humans. When leader Hazel and the other traveling rabbits come across a burrow that reluctantly takes them in, it isn’t long before they realise that something about this unusual new home isn’t quite right. It is eventually discovered that the pessimistic attitude of this newly found colony of rabbits is due to their acceptance that some must be sacrificed to the rabbit traps placed around their burrow by the local farmer. This human intrusion has caused them to become ‘different from other rabbits’; more human in themselves and more sacrificial of other creatures in order to survive. Although death and survival are of course natural parts of any animal’s life, the development of a morally based choice to sacrifice the newcomers to the traps is distinctly human.
Just as in Orwell’s Animal Farm, it is strange how frightening it can be to envision a world where other animals have taken on a human persona, mirroring in particular the characteristics of humanity that most of us like to pretend we don’t possess - greed, betrayal, selfishness and xenophobia, to name but a few. Although in terms of survival many of these traits are evident in certain other animals, humanity’s ‘speciesist’ decision to forsake the lives of what have been deemed lesser beings for the expansion of the human population is one that is made in the light of intelligence and responsibility – a responsibility to protect those animals that cannot combat the effects of environmental destruction on their own. As Adams explains, ‘Animals don’t behave like men…If they have to fight, they fight; and if they have to kill, they kill. But they don’t sit down and set their wits to work to devise ways of spoiling other creatures’ lives and hurting them.’
Much like E.M. Forster predicts the popular use of video communication in 'The Machine Stops', and similarly to H.G. Wells and 'The Time Machine' describing the possible consequences of industrialisation, Adams comments on (and somewhat foretells) the worldwide issue of mass species extinction and the destruction of nature. Expanding on this, many contemporary novels also seem careful to focus on environmental catastrophe when it comes to the end of the world. Once it was the plague, more recently nuclear war, but climate change has now stolen the spotlight for the apocalyptic fear of the 21st Century, and with good reason. So the next time you’re looking for a book to read, pick up Watership Down. It is not only an entertaining, sometimes humorous, and heartfelt story about some of nature’s creatures, but is also a novel that inspires both empathy and fear – empathy for those animals whose lives are so dangerously affected by humans, and fear for what we as humans may destroy if changes are not made.
Already read and enjoyed Watership Down? Check out the booklist below for similar fiction and non-fiction titles.
The Lorax – Dr Seuss
The Animals of Farthing Wood – Colin Damn
The Wind in the Willows – Kenneth Grahame
Red Wall – Brian Jacques
Mrs Frisby and the Rats of Nimh – Robert C. O’Brien
The Amazing Maurice and his Educated Rodents – Terry Pratchett
Animal Farm – George Orwell
Oryx and Crake – Margaret Atwood
The Machine Stops – E.M. Forster
The End of Nature – Bill McKibben
The Weather Makers – Tim Flannery
After the Future: Australia’s New Extinction Crisis – Tim Flannery
Walking – Henry David Thoreau